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Zaťal som si do prsta

V duchu "naštiepaj drevo nech nevyhasne", som sa chystal udržiavať oheň pred opekačkou. V tom som dostal akýsi výpadok koordinácie a sekera letela pár milimetrov od cieľa. Zasiahla ukazovák na ľavej ruke. A ako to už býva zvykom, všade plno krvi a zveličovania.

Nuž zutekal som do domu a nad vaňou (do ktorej kvapkala krv) som si ranu umyl vo vlažnej vode. Stiahol som si ju leukoplastom a obviazal obväzom. Popritom som zjedol sladkú tyčinku, pretože som mal asi hypoglykémiu, a takmer som omdlel. Nakoniec všetko dobre dopadlo a aj sa opekalo.

Odvtedy prešiel asi mesiac a počas hojenia rany som si len tak pre zábavu fotil celý hojaci proces zvonka. Rana sa dobre zahojila, pamiatkou bude malá ryha, ktorá sa už asi nevyhladí do pôvodne dokonalého povrchu môjho ľavého ukazováka.

Popritom bolo však celkom zaujímavé zopakovať si proces zrážania krvi a zastavenia krvácania. Po poranení prsta začala celkom húfne tiecť krv. Pravdu povediac, čakal som to. Trafil som sa len do kože a možno poškodil sval. Prst je teraz plne funkčný, takže nič iné som si asi neporanil. Krv tiekla dosť dlho. Aj keď má najprv dôjsť ku zúženiu cievy, nenastane tak okamžite - vyplavenie sérotonínu z krvných doštičiek (trombocytov) a kontrakcia cievy nastala po rádovo minútach. Možno to má aj tú výhodu, že krv "premyje ranu" a vyplaví nečistotu. Infekciu som v rane nemal. Zúžená cieva má tú výhodu, že cez ňu pretečie menej krvi a tým sa zmenšia aj jej straty.
- Vascular phase

Potom nastane nahromadenie (trombocytov) a vznikne "prvá zátka". Normálne sa trombocyty na neporušenú stenu cievy nenalepia. Nastane tak až po poranení a odkrytí kolagénového väziva. Trombocyty sa navzájom pospájajú uvoľnia potrebné látky, ktoré sú potrebné pri ďalšom procese zrážania. Táto prvotná štruktúra síce zastaví krvácanie, no nie je veľmi pevná. Preto je celkom dobré nedávať leukoplast po chvíli dole. Ja som ho tam mal dlhšie a navyše som sa s ním aj umýval, takže večer vyzeral prst ako na obrázku v 1. deň. Ani vtedy však ešte rana nebola dostatočne pevná.
- Platelet phase

Spevnenie rany má na svedomí hemokoagulácia, teda zrážanie krvi. V krvi sa vyskytuje niekoľko koagulačných faktorov, ktoré sa aktivujú pri poškodení cievy. Aktivácia koagulačných faktorov je kaskádovitá, teda jeden aktivuje druhý a má dve rôzne cesty aktivácie - Intrinsic a Extrinsic pathway. Obe cesty sa spájajú a ďalej pokračuje vytvorenie trombínu a ten zmenu fibrinogénu na fibrín. Vznikajú tak fibrínové vlákna do ktorých sa zachytávajú krvinky a sieť vláken sa potom sťahuje.
- Coagulation phase a Clot retraction

Bunky sa v tkanive spájajú a rana sa hojí. Štruktúra, ktorá vznikla pri koagulácií sa zničí v procese fibrinolýzy, ktorú aktivuje plazmín.
Kdesi som našiel aj peknú schému:



Na zopakovanie som použil učebnicu z fyziológie od Igora Bédera.

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